Proceedings of the Symposium
The Three-Dimensional Universe with Gaia


The proceedings of the Gaia Symposium "The Three-Dimensional Universe with Gaia", held at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 4-7 October 2004, are published by ESA as SP-576. A pdf version of the paper can be accessed by clicking on the paper title or number below.

The members of the Scientific and Local Organising Committees, the International Advisory Committee, and publications details can be found here.

Table of Contents
Introduction   xiii
Catherine Turon & Michael Perryman
Session 1: Overview of the mission, design, and scientific performances
Chair: Daniel Egret
Session 1: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
Introductory Remarks   3
J. Kovalevsky
Overall Science Goals of the Gaia Mission   5
F. Mignard
Overview of the Gaia Mission   15
M.A.C. Perryman
Gaia: The Satellite and Payload   23
O. Pace
The Astrometric Instrument of Gaia: Principles   29
L. Lindegren
Accuracy Budget and Performances   35
J.H.J. de Bruijne
Photometric System Design and Performances   43
C. Jordi & E. Høg

Radial Velocity Spectrometer Design and Performance


D. Katz

Session 1: Posters
Return to top of page
The Astro Optical Response Model   59
D. Busonero, M. Gai, D. Gardiol, M.G. Lattanzi, D. Loreggia
RVS Wavelength Calibration: Simulation of Reference Stars   63
F. Crifo, D. Katz
The Gaia Parameter Database   67
J.H.J. de Bruijne, U. Lammers, M.A.C. Perryman
Calibrating the Medium Band Photometer using Spikes   71
C. Fabricius, E. Høg
First Gaia Photometry   75
E. Høg
Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration (JASMINE)   77
N. Gouda, T. Yano, Y. Yamada, Y. Kobayashi, T. Tsujimoto, The JASMINE Working Group

Session 2: Galaxy Census, Formation and Evolution
Chair: Karri Muinonen

Session 2: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
Gaia Census and Completeness   83
A.C. Robin
Modelling the Galaxy for Gaia   89
J. Binney
Census of Binaries - the Big Picture   97
S. Söderhjelm
ISM, Extinction and Star Forming Regions   105
J. Knude, C. Fabricius
The Thin Disc and the Bulge with Gaia   113
A. Vallenari, E. Nasi, G. Bertelli, C. Chiosi
Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy   121
P.E. Nissen
Session 2: Oral Contributions
Return to top of page
Dynamical Streams in the Solar Neighbourhood   129
B. Famaey, A. Jorissen, X. Luri, M. Mayor, S. Udry, H. Dejonghe, C. Turon
Modelling Interstellar Extinction in Three Dimensions   135
D.J. Marshall, A.C. Robin, C. Reylé, M. Schultheis
The Galactic bulge as Seen by Gaia   143
C. Reylé, A.C. Robin, M. Schultheis, S. Picaud
Session 2: Posters
Return to top of page
Chemistry and Kinematics in the Solar Neighbourhood   149
O. Bienaymé, C. Soubiran, T. Mishenina, V. Kovtyukh, A. Siebert
From Detailed Galaxy Simulations to a Realistic End-of-Mission Gaia Catalogue   151
A.G.A. Brown, H.M. Velázquez, L.A. Aguilar
Stellar Galactic Population Characterization using Gaia Photometry   155
J.M. Carrasco, C. Jordi, F. Figueras, J. Torra
Open Clusters and the Galactic Metallicity Distribution   159
L. Chen, J.L. Hou
What Gaia Will See: All-Sky Source Counts from the GSC2   163
R. Drimmel, B. Bucciarelli, M.G. Lattanzi, A. Spagna, C. Jordi, A.C. Robin, C. Reylé, X. Luri
Galactic Extinction Model: New Developments   167
R. Drimmel
[alpha/Fe] in the Thin and the Thick Disc: Towards an Automatic Parametrization of Stellar Spectra   169
P. Girard, C. Soubiran
Determination of Star Formation Histories from Gaia-Type Photometric and Astrometric Survey Data   171
B.R. Jørgensen, L. Lindegren
Structure of the Galactic Halo Towards the North Galactic Pole   175
T.D. Kinman, A. Bragaglia, C. Cacciari, A. Buzzoni, A. Spagna
Self-Consistent Distance Determinations for Lutz-Kelker-Limited Samples   179
J. Maíz Apellániz
Tracing the Origin of the Solar Neighbourhood   183
B. Nordström, J. Andersen, M. Mayor
The Trouble with Isochrone Ages for Field Stars: A Cautionary Tale for Solar Neighbourhood Studies   187
F. Pont, L. Eyer
The Spiral Structure of Our Galaxy   191
D. Russeil
The Structure of the Thick Disc   193
A. Spagna, B. Bucciarelli, D. Carollo, R. Drimmel, M.G. Lattanzi, B. McLean, R.L. Smart
Combining Photometric and Astrometric Data to Identify Stellar Clustering at KPC-Distances   197
R. Teixeira, G. Medina-Tanco, M. Corti, C. Ducourant
Probing Galactic Reddening with the 8620 Å Diffuse Interstellar Band   201
S. Vidrih, T. Zwitter

Session 3: Relativity, Solar System, Extra-Solar Planets
Chair: James Binney

Session 3: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
Relativistic Formulation and Reference Frame   207
S.A. Klioner
Astrometric Limits Set by Surface Structure, Binarity, Microlensing   215
U. Bastian, H. Hefele
Asteroid Orbits with Gaia: Inversion and Prediction   223
K. Muinonen, J. Virtanen, M. Granvik, T. Laakso
Gaia Observations of Asteroids: Sizes, Taxonomy, Shapes and Spin Properties   231
A. Cellino, M. Delbò, A. Dell'Oro, V. Zappalà
Near Earth Objects   239
E. Høg, F. Mignard
Impact of Gaia on Dynamics and Evolution of the Solar System   243
P. Tanga
Detection and Characterization of Extra-Solar Planets with Gaia   251
M.G. Lattanzi, S. Casertano, S. Jancart, R. Morbidelli, D. Pourbaix, R. Pannunzio, A. Sozzetti, A. Spagna
Session 3: Oral Contributions
Return to top of page
Relativistic Astrometry: the RAMOD Project   259
B. Bucciarelli, M.T. Crosta, F. de Felice, M.G. Lattanzi, A. Vecchiato
Can the Perturbation of a Stellar Motion in a Triple System Mimic a Planet?   263
J. Schneider
The Study of Stars with Planets   267
G. Cayrel de Strobel
Session 3: Posters
Return to top of page
Probabilistic Representation of the Gaia Extragalactic Reference Frame   271
A.H. Andrei, A. Fienga, M. Assafin, J.L. Penna, D.N. da Silva Neto, R. Vieira Martins, P. Soares Musumeci
Astrometric Representation of the Gaia Extragalactic Reference Frame from Ground Observations   275
A.H. Andrei, A. Fienga, M. Assafin, J.L. Penna, D.N. da Silva Neto, R. Vieira Martins
Observations of the Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn   279
J.-E. Arlot, V. Lainey
GAREX: a Relativity Experiment with Gaia   281
M.T. Crosta, F. Mignard
Connection Between the ICRF and the Dynamical Reference Frame for the Outer Planets   285
D.N. da Silva Neto, M. Assafin, A.H. Andrei, R. Vieira Martins
Asteroid Sizes from Gaia Observations   289
A. Dell'Oro, A. Cellino
IMCCE Planetary Ephemerides: Present and Future   293
A. Fienga, J. Laskar, J.L. Simon, H. Manche, M. Gastineau
Determination of the PPN beta and Solar quadrupole from Asteroid Astrometry   297
D. Hestroffer, J. Berthier
Physical Models and Refined Orbits for Asteroids from Gaia Photometry and Astrometry   301
M. Kaasalainen, D. Hestroffer, P. Tanga
Refining the Relativistic Model for Gaia: Cosmological Effects in the BCRS   305
S.A. Klioner, M.H. Soffel
A Keck/HIRES Doppler Search for Planets Orbiting Metal-Poor Dwarfs   309
A. Sozzetti, D.W. Latham, G. Torres, R.P. Stefanik, A.P. Boss, B.W. Carney, J.B. Laird
Observing the Natural Satellites of Solar System Bodies with Gaia   313
P. Tanga, F. Mignard
A Ground-Based Network of Observers for a Gaia Follow-Up   317
W. Thuillot
Statistical Inversion of Gaia Photometry for Asteroid Spins and Shapes   321
J. Torppa, K. Muinonen
Asteroid Orbits with Gaia: Simulated Examples   325
J. Virtanen, K. Muinonen, F. Mignard
Gaia-Assisted On-Board Detection of Moving Objects   329
S. Wolff

Session 4: Technical Issues, Data Simulation, Reduction and Processing
Chair: Carla Cacciari

Session 4: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
The Gaia On-Board Scientific Data Handling   335
F. Arenou, C. Babusiaux, F. Chéreau, S. Mignot
Gaia Astrometric CCDs and Focal Plane   343
A.D. Short
Radial Velocity Spectrometer: Technical Issues   351
M. Cropper, D. Katz, A. Holland, R. Bingham, B. Hancock, D. Walton
Modelling the Instruments and Simulating the Data Stream   357
X. Luri, C. Babusiaux, E. Masana
Design and Overview of the Data Processing   361
J. Torra, F. Figueras, C. Jordi, X. Luri, E. Masana, C. Fabricius
Data Processing: Testing of Core Tasks   369
F. Figueras, B. López Martí, C. Fabricius, J. Torra, C. Jordi, P. Llimona, E. Masana, X. Luri
Gaia Photometric Data Analysis   377
A.G.A. Brown
A Prototype for Science Alerts   385
N. Wyn Evans, V. Belokurov
Object Classification and the Determination of Stellar Parameters   393
C.A.L. Bailer-Jones
Session 4: Oral Contributions
Return to top of page
Applying Grid Technology to Gaia Data Processing   401
S.G. Ansari, Y. Balague-Jordan, X. Luri, M. ter Linden
Gaia First Look   405
S. Jordan, U. Bastian, H. Lenhardt, H.-H. Bernstein, S. Hirte, M. Biermann
Session 4: Posters
Return to top of page
The Astrometric Model Implementation. Simulations and Data Reduction Compatibility Test   413
G. Anglada-Escudé, J. Torra, E. Masana, X. Luri
The Gaia Instrument and Basic Image Simulator   417
C. Babusiaux
Design of the Gaia Photometric Systems for Stellar Parametrization using a Population-Based Optimizer   421
C.A.L. Bailer-Jones
Simulation of the Clock Framework of Gaia   425
J. Castañeda, J.P. Gordo, J. Portell, E. García-Berro, X. Luri
The Windows Design and the Restoration of Object Environments   429
C. Dollet, A. Bijaoui, F. Mignard
The Gaia Focal Plane to Sky Mapping: A Sample of Calibration Issues   433
M. Gai, D. Busonero, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia
Gaia Optical Aberrations Described by Means of Orthogonal Polynomials   437
D. Gardiol, D. Bonino, D. Loreggia
Automatic Parametrization of Gaia Astrometrically Unresolved Binary Stars   441
T.A. Kaempf, P.G. Willemsen, C.A.L. Bailer-Jones
Gaia Telemetry Rate Simulations: A First Look at the Complete Picture   445
U. Lammers
CHORIZOS: a Complete Photometric Chi-squared Code   449
J. Maíz Apellániz
Minimum Distance Method of Classification Applied to Gaia Simulated Photometric Data   453
V. Malyuto
The Gaia System Simulator   457
E. Masana, X. Luri, G. Anglada-Escudé, P. Llimona
Observing Faint Binaries with Gaia   461
P. Nurmi
Galaxy Simulations of Visual Binary Stars   463
P. Nurmi
A Bayesian Classification Algorithm for Gaia   467
S. Picaud, A.C. Robin, U. Bastian
The Payload Data Handling and Telemetry Systems of Gaia   471
J. Portell, X. Luri, E. García-Berro, E.M. Geijo
Design of a Basic Angle Monitoring System in Silicon Carbide   475
A.A. van Veggel, P.C.J.N. Rosielle, H. Nijmeijer, A.A. Wielders, H.J.P. Vink
Automated Identification of Unresolved Binaries using Medium Band Photometry   479
P.G. Willemsen, T.A. Kaempf, C.A.L. Bailer-Jones, K.S. de Boer
The JASMINE Simulator   483
Y. Yamada, The JASMINE Working Group
Optical System for JASMINE and CCD Centroiding Experiment   487
T. Yano, N. Gouda, Y. Kobayashi, T. Tsujimoto, T. Nakajima, et al.

Session 5: Stars: laboratories and tracers
Chair: Poul Erik Nissen

Session 5: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
Stellar Interiors and Atmospheres in the Framework of the Gaia Mission   493
Y. Lebreton
Gaia Stellar Chemical Abundances and Galactic Archaeology   501
A. Recio-Blanco, F. Thévenin
Duplicity and Masses   507
D. Pourbaix
Variability Analysis: Detection and Classification   513
L. Eyer
Metallicity and Age of Disc Stars   521
M. Haywood
The RAVE Spectroscopic Survey: Results From the First 44,000 Observed Stars   529
U. Munari, T. Zwitter, A. Siebert
Session 5: Oral Contributions
Return to top of page
Determination of Stellar Rotation with Gaia and Effects of Spectral Mismatch   537
A. Gomboc, D. Katz
Emission Line Stars in the Framework of Gaia   543
I. Kolka, T. Eenmäe, A. Hirv, T. Tuvikene, M. Kama
Towards Accurate Stellar Photometry: the Role of C, N, O and Alpha-Process Elements   549
G. Tautvaisiene, B. Edvardsson
Session 5: Posters
Return to top of page
Gaia Data Reduction Tasks for Double and Multiple Stars   557
F. Arenou, S. Söderhjelm
Study of B and Be Stars by Gaia   561
D. Briot, N. Robichon
A PHOENIX Model Atmosphere Grid for Gaia   565
I. Brott, P.H. Hauschildt
Predicted Properties of Eclipsing Binaries Observable by Gaia   569
J. Dischler, S. Söderhjelm
Weighing Stellar-Mass Black Holes with Gaia   573
B. Fuchs, U. Bastian
Astrometric Binaries with a Variable Component   575
J.L. Halbwachs, D. Pourbaix
Orbit Determination for Gaia Spectroscopic Binaries   579
S. Jancart, D. Pourbaix
Hipparcos Astrometric Binaries in the Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits: A Testbench for the Detection of Astrometric Binaries with Gaia   583
S. Jancart, A. Jorissen, D. Pourbaix
Modelling Spectra of Fast-Rotating Stars: Beyond Spherical Approximation   587
U. Jauregi, A. Gomboc, T. Zwitter
Theoretical Modelling of Late-Type Giant Atmospheres: Preparing for Gaia   591
A. Kucinskas, I. Brott, P.H. Hauschildt, H.-G. Ludwig, L. Lindegren, T. Tanabé, V. Vansevicius
alpha-Enhancement in Thin and Thick Disc Stars: An Atlas of Synthetic Spectra   595
M.L. Malagnini, M. Franchini, C. Morossi, P. Di Marcantonio
Gaia and the Fundamental Stellar Parameters from Double-Lined Eclipsing Binaries   599
P.M. Marrese, E.F. Milone, R. Sordo, M.D. Williams
Variability of B and Be Stars with Gaia   603
C. Neiner, A.-M. Hubert, Y. Frémat, M. Floquet
Physical Parameters of Stars in Close Binaries Derived from Gaia Photometry   607
P.G. Niarchos, V.N. Manimanis, K.D. Gazeas
Introducing Adapted Nelder & Mead's Downhill Simplex Method to a Fully Automated Analysis of Eclipsing Binaries   611
A. Prsa, T. Zwitter
Automatic Derivation of Stellar Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Abundances   615
A. Recio-Blanco, A. Bijaoui, P. de Laverny, D. Katz, F. Thévenin
Identifying M Supergiants with Gaia   619
G.M. Wahlgren, M. Lundqvist, A. Kuvcinskas
Extracting Stellar Parameters from Observed Spectra: The Role of Cross-Correlation and Minimum Distance Methods   623
T. Zwitter, U. Munari, A. Siebert

Session 6: The Galaxy and Beyond
Chair: Catherine Césarsky

Session 6: Invited Contributions
Return to top of page
The Fundamental Building Blocks of Galaxies   629
P. Kroupa
Crowded Fields in the Milky Way and Beyond   637
C. Babusiaux
Gaia, the Oldest Stars and the Early Universe   645
M. Spite
Dark Matter in the Local Group   651
M.I. Wilkinson
Variable Stars as Standard Candles and Stellar Tracers   659
G. Bono, M. Cignoni
Quasars with Gaia: Identification and Astrophysical Parameters   667
J.-F. Claeskens, A. Smette, J. Surdej

Session 6: Oral Contributions
Return to top of page
Correcting Systematic Errors in the Determination of Proper Motions in the Galaxy   675
J. Kovalevsky
Globular Cluster Kinematics with Gaia   681
H. Baumgardt, P. Kroupa
Session 6: Posters
Return to top of page
VLBI Survey of Weak Extragalactic Radio Sources as a Potential Link Between the Radio and Optical Reference Frames   683
S. Frey
Star Formation and Chemical Evolution of M31   687
J.L. Hou, L. Chen, R.X. Chang
The Physics Behind the Non-Linearity of the Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relation   691
S. Kanbur, C. Ngeow
Beyond the Galaxy with Gaia: Evolutionary Histories of Galaxies in the Local Group   695
A. Kucinskas, L. Lindegren, V. Vansevicius
Cool Carbon Stars in the Galactic Halo   699
N. Mauron, T. Kendall
Cepheid Period-Luminosity Relations: Galactic vs. LMC and the Results from t-Test   703
C. Ngeow, S. Kanbur
Classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae Stars as Standard Candles   707
A.S. Rastorguev, A.K. Dambis, M.V. Zabolotskikh
Kinematic Survey of Halo Stars from SDSS-DR2 with GSC2   711
P. Re Fiorentin, A. Spagna, A. Helmi, M.G. Lattanzi
Substructure and Tidal Debris in Local Galaxies: Models and Observations   715
J.E. Taylor
Statistical Methods for Calibrating Trigonometric Parallaxes   719
T. Tsujimoto, Y. Yamada, N. Gouda
The Classification of Cepheids by Pulsation Modes and the Problem of the Distance scale   723
M.V. Zabolotskikh, M.E. Sachkov, L.N. Berdnikov, A.S. Rastorguev, I.E. Egorov

Concluding Remarks

Gaia and Astrophysics in 2015-2020   729
P.T. de Zeeuw