Image of the Week

 

How Gaia unveils what stars are made of

 

Several Gaia RVS Spectra, presenting the stellar flux (black dots) in the wavelength interval between 846 and 870 nm (in vacuum). The coloured vertical stripes indicate the different atoms and molecules present in the stellar atmosphere. A diffuse interstellar absorption band (DIB) is highlighted by a green square. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO. Acknowledgement: Gaia/DPAC/CU8-CU6, Recio-Blanco and the GSP-Spec team.

 

Gaia RVS stellar spectra, at a resolution of ~11500, contain a wealth of information about Milky Way stars. This animation shows several Gaia RVS stellar spectra, presenting the stellar flux (black dots) in the wavelength interval between 846 and 870 nm (in vacuum). The flux is normalized to the continuum, showing variations (spectral lines) due to the light absorption from atoms and molecules present in the stellar atmosphere, that are identified by coloured vertical stripes in the figure.

These absorption features, and therefore the spectral line profiles, depend on the physical properties of the star. In particular, this dependence carries information on the effective temperature (Teff, in K), the surface gravitational acceleration (usually expressed through its logarithm, log g, with g in cm/s2), the mean abundance of elements heavier than helium ([M/H] in dex) and the mean abundance of α-elements (oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulphur, calcium, titanium) with respect to iron ([α/Fe]), expressed in dex, a scientific notation converting the number preceding it into its 10 based antilogarithm. In addition, the absorption increases with each element’s or molecule’s abundance, allowing to estimate the chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere.

The Gaia Generalized Stellar Parameterizer-Spectroscopy (GSP-Spec) algorithm of the Apsis chain of Coordination Unit 8 in the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium is able to estimate up to 18 different physical parameters and chemical abundances for millions of RVS spectra. Processing of the Gaia data to produce these astrophysical parameters has been recently finalized and validation of the data is currently ongoing, with the expected release of the results with Gaia Data Release 3 in the first half of 2022.

First of all, GSP-Spec provides the four atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [M/H], [α/Fe]) that are reported on top of the image. In addition, around 60 different spectral lines are automatically analysed and then combined to derive the abundance of up to 12 chemical species, as shown on the left side of the image. For each element, the absorption lines detection, conditioned to their depth, is highly dependent on the atmospheric parameters and the spectra quality (such as the signal-to-noise ratio, chosen to be very high for the spectra illustrated in the animation). This detection determines the possibility of estimating the corresponding abundance in the stellar atmosphere. As a consequence, not all the elements are estimated for all the spectra, with important variations from one element to another. For each element, if at least one line is detected, an estimation of the corresponding abundance in the stellar atmosphere becomes possible. If several lines of the same element are detected, their individual results are combined, taking into account their quality (uncertainties).

All chemical abundances, including global metallicity and [α/Fe], are expressed with respect to the Solar value, in a logarithmic scale (e.g. [Fe/H]=-0.30 dex indicates that the stellar iron abundance is half of the Solar one). Moreover, all the displayed chemical abundances are expressed with respect to the iron one, with the exception of iron itself, whose abundance is derived with respect to hydrogen.

Finally, the intensity (equivalent width, EW) and central position (λ) of a diffuse interstellar absorption band (DIB) highlighted by a green square in the animation above, are also provided by the GSP-Spec module. DIBs are interstellar absorption features originating from the interstellar medium, quasi-consensually attributed  to large organic molecules (see also: Diffuse Interstellar Bands in three hot stars as seen by Gaia's Radial Velocity Spectrometer)

The chemical composition of the stellar atmosphere informs us on the interstellar medium conditions at the time of the star's formation, a crucial fossil signature to reconstruct the history of our Galaxy. Gaia chemical diagnostics include all the main nucleosynthetic channels enriching the interstellar medium, from exploding massive stars, Type Ia supernovae, neutron-star mergers and dying low mass stars.

The RVS spectra, calibrated by the CU6 pipeline and analysed by the GSP-Spec module of the CU8 Apsis pipeline, will be published in 2022 as part of the Gaia Data Release 3.

 

Abbreviations:

 

 

Credits: ESA/Gaia/DPAC/CU8-CU6, Alejandra Recio-Blanco (OCA), Patrick de Laverny (OCA), Georges Kordopatis (OCA), Christophe Ordenovic (OCA), Pedro Alonso-Palicio (OCA), Mathias Schultheis (OCA), Marco Antonio Alvarez-González (GGG), He Zhao (OCA), Gabriele Contursi (OCA), Minia Manteiga (GGG), Carlos Dafonte (GGG), Inna Oreshina-Slezak (OCA). We wish to thank the Gaia Data Processing Centre at the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES; DPCC) for producing the high-quality spectroscopy and data analysis upon which this work rests.

[Published: 09/07/2021]

Image of the Week Archive

2021

09/07: How Gaia unveils what stars are made of

23/06: Interviews with CU3

27/04: HIP 70674 Orbital solution resulting from Gaia DR3 processing

30/03: First transiting exoplanet by Gaia

26/03: Apophis' Yarkovsky acceleration improved through stellar occultation

26/02: Matching observations to sources for Gaia DR4

2020

22/12: QSO emission lines in low-resolution BP/RP spectra

03/12: Gaia Early Data Release 3

29/10: Gaia EDR3 passbands

15/10: Star clusters are only the tip of the iceberg

04/09: Discovery of a year long superoutburst in a white dwarf binary

12/08: First calibrated XP spectra

22/07: Gaia and the size of the Solar System

16/07: Testing CDM and geometry-driven Milky Way rotation Curve Models

30/06: Gaia's impact on Solar system science

14/05: Machine-learning techniques reveal hundreds of open clusters in Gaia data

20/03: The chemical trace of Galactic stellar populations as seen by Gaia

09/01: Discovery of a new star cluster: Price-Whelan1

08/01: Largest ever seen gaseous structure in our Galaxy

2019
20/12: The lost stars of the Hyades
06/12: Do we see a dark-matter like effect in globular clusters?
12/11: Hypervelocity star ejected from a supermassive black hole
17/09: Instrument Development Award
08/08: 30th anniversary of Hipparcos
17/07: Whitehead Eclipse Avoidance Manoeuvre
28/06: Following up on Gaia Solar System Objects
19/06: News from the Gaia Archive
29/05: Spectroscopic variability of emission lines stars with Gaia
24/05: Evidence of new magnetic transitions in late-type stars
03/05: Atmospheric dynamics of AGB stars revealed by Gaia
25/04: Geographic contributions to DPAC
22/04: omega Centauri's lost stars
18/04: 53rd ESLAB symposium "the Gaia universe"
18/02: A river of stars
2018
21/12: Sonification of Gaia data
18/12: Gaia captures a rare FU Ori outburst
12/12: Changes in the DPAC Executive
26/11:New Very Low Mass dwarfs in Gaia data
19/11: Hypervelocity White Dwarfs in Gaia data
15/11: Hunting evolved carbon stars with Gaia RP spectra
13/11: Gaia catches the movement of the tiny galaxies surrounding the Milky Way
06/11: Secrets of the "wild duck" cluster revealed
12/10: 25 years since the initial GAIA proposal
09/10: 3rd Gaia DPAC Consortium Meeting
30/09: A new panoramic sky map of the Milky Way's Stellar Streams
25/09: Plausible home stars for interstellar object 'Oumuamua
11/09: Impressions from the IAU General Assembly
30/06: Asteroids in Gaia Data
14/06: Mapping and visualising Gaia DR2

25/04: In-depth stories on Gaia DR2

14/04: Gaia tops one trillion observations
16/03: Gaia DR2 Passbands
27/02: Triton observation campaign
11/02: Gaia Women In Science
29/01: Following-up on Gaia
2017
19/12: 4th launch anniversary
24/11: Gaia-GOSA service
27/10: German Gaia stamp in the making
19/10: Hertzsprung-russell diagram using Gaia DR1
05/10: Updated prediction to the Triton occultation campaign
04/10: 1:1 Gaia model arrives at ESAC
31/08: Close stellar encounters from the first Gaia data release
16/08: Preliminary view of the Gaia sky in colour
07/07: Chariklo stellar occultation follow-up
24/04: Gaia reveals the composition of asteroids
20/04: Extra-galactic observations with Gaia
10/04: How faint are the faintest Gaia stars?
24/03: Pulsating stars to study Galactic structures
09/02: Known exoplanetary transits in Gaia data
31/01: Successful second DPAC Consortium Meeting
2016
23/12: Interactive and statistical visualisation of Gaia DR1 with vaex
16/12: Standard uncertainties for the photometric data (in GDR1)
25/11: Signature of the rotation of the galactic bar uncovered
15/11: Successful first DR1 Workshop
27/10: Microlensing Follow-Up
21/10: Asteroid Occultation
16/09: First DR1 results
14/09: Pluto Stellar Occultation
15/06: Happy Birthday, DPAC!
10/06: 1000th run of the Initial Data Treatment system
04/05: Complementing Gaia observations of the densest sky regions
22/04: A window to Gaia - the focal plane
05/04: Hipparcos interactive data access tool
24/03: Gaia spots a sunspot
29/02: Gaia sees exploding stars next door
11/02: A new heart for the Gaia Object Generator
04/02: Searching for solar siblings with Gaia
28/01: Globular cluster colour-magnitude diagrams
21/01: Gaia resolving power estimated with Pluto and Charon
12/01: 100th First-Look Weekly Report
06/01: Gaia intersects a Perseid meteoroid
2015
18/12: Tales of two clusters retold by Gaia
11/11: Lunar transit temperature plots
06/11: Gaia's sensors scan a lunar transit
03/11: Celebrity comet spotted among Gaia's stars
09/10: The SB2 stars as seen by Gaia's RVS
02/10: The colour of Gaia's eyes
24/09: Estimating distances from parallaxes
18/09: Gaia orbit reconstruction
31/07: Asteroids all around
17/07: Gaia satellite and amateur astronomers spot one in a billion star
03/07: Counting stars with Gaia
01/07: Avionics Model test bench arrives at ESOC
28/05: Short period/faint magnitude Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud
19/05: Visualising Gaia Photometric Science Alerts
09/04: Gaia honours Einstein by observing his cross
02/04: 1 April - First Look Scientists play practical joke
05/03: RR Lyrae stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud as seen by Gaia
26/02: First Gaia BP/RP deblended spectra
19/02: 13 months of GBOT Gaia observations
12/02: Added Value Interface Portal for Gaia
04/02: Gaia's potential for the discovery of circumbinary planets
26/01: DIBs in three hot stars as seen by Gaia's RVS
15/01: The Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution
06/01: Close encounters of the stellar kind
2014
12/12: Gaia detects microlensing event
05/12: Cat's Eye Nebula as seen by Gaia
01/12: BFOSC observation of Gaia at L2
24/11: Gaia spectra of six stars
13/11: Omega Centauri as seen by Gaia
02/10: RVS Data Processing
12/09: Gaia discovers first supernova
04/08: Gaia flag arrives at ESAC
29/07: Gaia handover
15/07: Eclipsing binaries
03/07: Asteroids at the "photo finish"
19/06: Calibration image III - Messier 51
05/06: First Gaia BP/RP and RVS spectra
02/06: Sky coverage of Gaia during commissioning
03/04: Gaia source detection
21/02: Sky-background false detections in the sky mapper
14/02: Gaia calibration images II
06/02: Gaia calibration image I
28/01: Gaia telescope light path
17/01: First star shines for Gaia
14/01: Radiation Campaign #4
06/01: Asteroid detection by Gaia
2013
17/12: Gaia in the gantry
12/12: The sky in G magnitude
05/12: Pre-launch release of spectrophotometric standard stars
28/11: From one to one billion pixels
21/11: The Hipparcos all-sky map
15/10: Gaia Sunshield Deployment Test
08/10: Initial Gaia Source List
17/09: CU1 Operations Workshop
11/09: Apsis
26/08: Gaia arrival in French Guiana
20/08: Gaia cartoons
11/07: Model Soyuz Fregat video
01/07: Acoustic Testing
21/06: SOVT
03/06: CU4 meeting #15
04/04: DPCC (CNES) 
26/03: Gaia artist impression 
11/02: Gaia payload testing  
04/01: Space flyby with Gaia-like data
2012
10/12: DPAC OR#2. Testing with Planck
05/11: Galaxy detection with Gaia
09/10: Plot of part of the GUMS-10 catalogue
23/07: "Gaia" meets at Gaia
29/06: The Sky as seen by Gaia
31/05: Panorama of BAM clean room
29/03: GREAT school results
12/03: Scanning-law movie
21/02: Astrometric microlensing and Gaia
03/02: BAM with PMTS
12/01: FPA with all the CCDs and WFSs
2011
14/12: Deployable sunshield
10/11: Earth Trojan search
21/10: First Soyuz liftoff from the French Guiana
20/09: Fast 2D image reconstruction algorithm
05/09: RVS OMA
10/08: 3D distribution of the Gaia catalogue
13/07: Dynamical Attitude Model
22/06: Gaia's view of open clusters
27/05: Accuracy of the stellar transverse velocity
13/05: Vibration test of BAM mirrors
18/04: L. Lindegren, Dr. Honoris Causa of the Observatory of Paris
19/01: Detectability of stars close to Jupiter
05/01: Delivery of the WFS flight models
2010
21/12: The 100th member of CU3
17/11: Nano-JASMINE and AGIS
27/10: Eclipsing binary light curves fitted with DPAC code
13/10: Gaia broad band photometry
28/09: Measuring stellar parameters and interstellar extinction
14/09: M1 mirror
27/08: Quest for the Sun's siblings
 
Please note: Entries from the period 2003-2010 are available in this PDF document.